2019 FORMULA ONE SEASON: all technical details that you should know…

1

With the
double aim of reducing costs and making overtaking easier, the Formula 1 top
management team, together with the Team and the Sponsors, has decided to
introduce a Technical Regulation revamped
in many sections for the 2019 season.


An
important consequence that will be immediately visible even to the less
attentive will be the great aesthetic difference in the front and center of the
new single-seater compared to those of the past year. The intent is to minimize the downwards thrust loss induced by the
turbulence generated by the cars flow
, that during last years was responsible
for the 30% of the lost downforce. Reducing the amount of “dirty air”
produced by cars should allow drivers to more easily follow a car and
subsequently help open up additional overtaking opportunities. At the same
time, efforts have been made to increase the DRS efficiency, to generate a
greater speed difference between the cars and consequently to facilitate
overtaking.


The new
technical regulations concern some important aerodynamic macro areas such as
the front wing, the brake air intakes, the bargeboards and the rear wing, but
not only. So let’s start and discover them together.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 3.3: the front wing will
be wider and deeper for….

As can be
clearly seen from the second image of the article, a very important and very
evident modification will be seen on the front wing, which will become much
simpler
. The most important dimensional changes are:

• 200 mm
wider, the front wing will be as wide as the car
• 25 mm
deeper (towards the front)
• 25 mm
height increase (upwards)

Instead the upper flaps, the “famous”
external tunnel and the various internal and external profiles to the endplates
will disappear
. The
wing cannot have more than five distinct elements in addition to accentuated
arcuate forms (maximum 15 °) in the endplates, elements now almost completely
defined by the FIA. Beyond that, two is the maximum number of flow conditioners
to be placed below the wing. The purpose of these rules is to reduce the
outwash effect of the front wing. According to a Top Team, these important changes to the outer parts of the front wings will
bring the various teams to add many details in the front area,
to better
control the flow directed towards turning vanes and bargeboards.

The wing area had to be increased in order to
overcome the losses in terms of aerodynamic load generation caused by the
elimination of the above mentioned macro components.


As written
almost three months ago, these changes
will lead the various teams to extend their cars wheelbase with, at least
initially, a less exasperated use of the rake set-up
; in short, it goes
more in the direction of the macro aerodynamic concept preferred by Mercedes
than in the much loved “short wheelbase” and the rear bumper of Red Bull and, in part, Ferrari. The lengthening of the wheelbase will not
therefore be a consequence of the increase in the size of the petrol tank (from
105 kg to 110 kg loadable at the beginning of the race) but only an adaptation
to the new aerodynamic rules that favor a macro aerodynamic concept compared to
another
.
Why do we
say this? Because although the most important change is certainly to be found
at the front, the major problems the
various engineers are finding are in the back area with very important losses
in terms of aerodynamic load
(at the front very similar to those of the
last season load levels would have already been achieved). The FIA ​​has in fact removed a lot of
aerodynamic aids that were used in the past mainly to influence the tires
airflow and to seal the diffuser, avoiding deleterious loss of flow (energy) to
the outside of the car. Without these
elements it is certainly more complicated for the teams to be able to use a high
diffuser angle (rake) without avoiding its stalling
.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 11.4: the brake lines
will considerably reduce their aerodynamic functions
Continuing, the FIA ​​also intervened on the
front brake ducts

(not on the rear ones), reducing their
application as aerodynamic surfaces
thanks to important changes to article
11.4.1.

So, it will no longer be possible to add wing
profiles
in one of
those areas where the various teams, in recent seasons, had developed various
solutions to be able to manage the trail of the front tires and therefore have
a greater cleaned flow arriving at the rear of the car. The size and shape of
the cooling duct itself has also been somewhat limited with the inner surface
of the cooling duct area that will have to stay within the rim perimeter and no
longer even forward as we were used to until last season.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 11.4: the blown hubs are
banned, a solution used by Ferrari last season
In past
seasons many teams, including Ferrari, have developed systems which were able
to expel the air directly from the front hub; the main purpose was to deviate outwards the flow between the wheel and
the body
, then, reconnecting to what was written in the previous paragraph,
to manage the trail of the front tires in the best way.

The new
version of Article 11.4.3 now
establishes that the airflow cannot pass through a 105 mm diameter circular
section from the central axis of the wheel and its attachment (the wheel nut). It should be noted that no other means have
been banned to channel air through the wheel for a
(however minor) aerodynamic gain such as for example
the Mercedes rim “holes”  tested at the end of last year.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 3.5: for mainly
“commercial” reasons the bargeboards will have a lower height
To give more visibility to the sponsors positioned
in the central part of the car, the area where it will be possible to install
aerodynamic appendages also called bargeboards has been modified.
We recall
that these components play a very important role in directing the flow beyond
the leading edge of the floor and in managing the air around the bellies.

Next year
the height of the bargeboards will be reduced by 125 mm, around 25% (475 mm was
the 2018 height) and their curvature will also be reduced thanks to the
introduction of a longitudinal line of 4.5 ° from the center line of the car.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 14.3: the number of
supports of the mirrors connected to the bodywork has been limited to two
Following
the question raised in the Spanish GP
by various teams, including Mercedes, towards the Ferrari mirrors (see the picture),
the FIA ​​has worked to “close” the
gray areas available to the Teams in the 2019 Technical Regulations.

The number of supports connected to the body
has been limited to two
(only one can be connected to the cockpit), to prevent the teams from
using them with the main function of flow conditioners; these are the most
important changes in this macro area. It
will still be possible to have ventilated zones
, introduced by Ferrari last year and then copied by Toro Rosso and Red Bull during the season.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 3.6: the DRS effect will
increase by 30%
If the
changes to the front wing can certainly be considered very important because,
consequently, they influence everything which is aerodynamic, not least they
are to be underestimated those to the rear wing. The most important dimensional
changes are:

• 100 mm
wider
• 70 mm
higher
• 20 mm
more exploitation of the DRS (now 85 mm in total)
• 100 mm
deeper

An increase in drag resistance coupled with the
larger section of the mobile wing will make the DRS effect even more powerful
(30%), with a consequent greater speed differential between the cars on the
straight
. It will
be interesting to understand how the various teams will set up the distribution
of the load between the rear wing mainplane and the mobile part. And here a
very important matter: in qualifying the DRS can always be opened in the areas
imposed by the FIA ​​while in the race only if it is less than a second from
the car that precedes. A load aerodynamically set up can be more masked in
qualifying thanks to the important help given by the opening of the DRS,
advantage that will certainly disappear if not become a handicap then in the
race.


It should also be noted that the 2019 technical
regulation does not allow the use of the classic channels
(top) and the saw tooth profiles
(introduced by McLaren and then
copied by many other teams) on the endplates for a reason, even in this case,
purely commercial. We will therefore see much cleaner endplates that will put more
light on the sponsors. It is very likely that we will continue to see some
slots at the bottom of the endplates instead.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE: at the beginning of the
race it will be possible to embark up to 110 kg of fuel
At the beginning of the race, the cars can
embark up to 5 kg more of fuel, going from 105 kg to 110 kg.
The purpose of this change is to
allow drivers to be able to push their Power Units for as long as possible in
the race, trying to cancel the excessive fuel economy that has created some bad
mood especially in the drivers in last seasons.
SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 4.6: the minimum driver mass
has been set at 80 kg
An important
and much requested innovation by pilots is the weight: from the 2019 season we
will not only talk about the minimum weight of the car / driver but the minimum combined mass of the driver and
the required ballast that will be 80 kg
. A part of regulation that should
have been introduced years ago.
4.6.1 The weight of the driver with his seat and the driving equipment
will be established by the FIA ​​technical delegate at the first event of the
championship, this reference weight can be changed at any time during the
championship season, if deemed necessary by the delegate FIA technician. This
reference weight will be used to establish the minimum weight of the pilot and ballast
referred to in Article 4.6.2 below.
4.6.2 The reference weight of the driver will be added to the weight of
any ballast designated for this purpose and, at no time during the event, may
be less than 80 kg.

With the
regulations of the past years we were going in two completely opposite
situations: the cars became increasingly “fat” while, on the
contrary, the drivers needed more and more diets to stay in the 740 kg imposed
by the regulation (743 kg in 2019). Calculating
that 10 kg of mass cost about 3 tenths per lap
, until last season the
highest and most “fat” pilots were certainly penalized.


From this
season, all teams will have to emulate
the effect of having a mass of 80 kg linked in the car, attaching the necessary
fixing it to the survival cell
between the front and rear extension of the
cockpit entry model. This will also allow bigger drivers like Hulkenberg to
have some freedom in terms of diet and also in terms of training with pilots
who will certainly be able to put more muscle mass to counteract the high G
forces present with these new generations of cars.

SEASON 2019 – ARTICLE 14.5: there will be three
lights on in case of wet

In the next
season, in wet conditions there will be
three rear lights on the new cars and not only the classic single central light
.

In fact, two bright LED strips measuring 120 x 30 x
5 mm will be introduced on the back of the endplates
mounted inside a casing
made entirely of aluminum like those tested on the W09 in the post-Grand Prix
tests in Spain last May.
 SEASON 2019: only three names at each weekend
but the compounds will be five
For the
2019 season, Pirelli will introduce a new coding system for its tires: in every single race we will talk only
about Hard (white), Medium (yellow) and Soft (red) compounds
which will
come out from the selection of 5 compounds called C1 ( the softer), C2, C3, C4
and C5 (the hardest).

Those which
have already been chosen for the first three Grand Prix of the season (in brackets, after the new codification,
the old denomination):
Australia: Hard (C2 – Medium), Medium (C3 – Soft) e Soft (C4 – UltraSoft)
Bahrain: Hard (C1 – Hard)Medium (C2 – Medium) e Soft (C3 – Soft)
Cina: Hard (C2 – Medium)Medium (C3 – Soft) Soft (C4 – UltraSoft)

Editore: PG Tech @SmilexTech
Traduzione: Alessandro Arcari – @BerrageizF1

1 commento

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